Measurement of power consumption. Analysis of mains parameters. Evaluation of economic and statistical indicators.

**Questions preceding the decision to invest:**Increase technology (machine) production capacity over currently. Technology reduces operating costs and thus increase the efficiency. We will create some additional benefits. It is an investment in technology final.

**Costs for investment:**

**Initial Cost:**Purchase, transportation, installation, commissioning,**Operation and Maintenance Cost:**over the life of technology,**Fixed Cost:**relatively constant for example levies, taxes, salaries,**Variable Cost:**dependence on operating activities,**Incremental or Marginal Cost:**determined from variable costs, eg. increase in performance of some of the technology,**Sunk Cost:**Usually ignored by them,**Adjustment Cost:**on end of technical life,

**Economic variables related to the time:**

- The purchasing power of money (finance):themselves typically declines over time. When investing associated with reward, in this case usually grows,
- Price of technology: typically decreases by time,
- Price of raw materials:grows by time,
- The interest rate[%]: Interest - the amount of borrowed funds (by banking institution) for the use of funds . Depends not only on economic variables over time may rise or fall,
- Strength of human thoughts: Almost infinite value . Little used (we act as thought patterns),

**METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE PROFITABILITY (AND RETURN) INVESTMENTS. PREDICTIVE METHODS**

**Payback Period PP:**SPP (Single Payback Period) DPP (Discounted Payback Period). Counts with time value of money. Iterative calculation,**Return on Investment ROI:**DPP(Discounted Payback Period). Involve with time value of money. Iteration method,- These two methods are not consistent (there aren’t "articulated", "unsuited”) with cost over the technical life of technology , do not consider timing „cash flow“, do not include any costs associated with the specifics of accounting firms: DPP(Discounted Payback Period). Involve with time value of money. Iteration method,

Provide a "rough" approximation investment values. Rough predictive: DPP = “year ago”+ Cost at beginning of year / Cash Flow during a year, - However, they are simple, quick, relatively "denouncing" to measure the profitability of future investments.Lower investment in capital, sufficient for the decision to invest . "Weakest" method is ROI, since time does not reflect "cash flows", that we reduce economic efficiency of the project: ROI = Profit from investments - Investment costs / Invest costs

**OTHER METHODS OF EVALUATING THE PROFITABILITY OF INVESTMENTS**

- The total lifetime costs of technology- total LCC (Life-Cycle Cost, present value method),
- The ratio of savings to investment (the method - benefit/cost ratio),
- Net Present Value (NPV),
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR),
- These four methods ae more comprehensive, accurate, used for capital "powerful" investment. Calculating the value of money (present and future),
- For MAU3 device, suitable methods are SPP (for "own" investments) and DPP (in the case of credit),

**THE METHOD OF EVALUATING THE RETURN ON INVESTMENT SPP**

**Input parameters:**

- Initial Investment,
- Annual cost (0 will not make),
- The rate of electricity,
- 2 and 3 parameter may be updated . An estimate of the number of years (months, days) to return investmen,

**THE METHOD OF EVALUATING THE RETURN ON INVESTMENT DPP**

NAME | AMOUNT | END | YIELD |
---|---|---|---|

Initial investment |
10000 € | - | - |

The discount rate |
5% | - | - |

Annual gross income |
3000€ | - | - |

1.year |
3000€/1,05 | =2857€ | Returns net |

2.year |
3000€/1,1025 | =2721€ | Returns net |

3.year |
3000€/1,1576 | =2592€ | Σ=10638€ |

4.year |
3000€/1,2155 | =2468€ | Σ=8170€ |

**Return on investment in 3 years and 9 months ward parameters:**

- Initial Investment,
- The rate of electricity,
- Discount rate in % 2 and 3 parameter may be updated. An estimate of the number of years (months, days) to return investment,

**BRIEF GUIDE TO "BETTER INVESTMENT".? BEFORE YOU DECIDE TO INVEST IN THE DEVELOPMENT? (MAKING GO/NO-GO PROJECT DECISION)**

- Focus on „cash flows: less on profits. “Better a sparrow in the hand than a pigeon on the roof "(proverb). Accounting profits contain a number of economic fictions (assumptions), on the other hand, the flow of funds is economic fact (manifested reality),
- Focus on growth „cash flows: Carefully imagine alternatives to the project affect change “cash flows“ (thus, the desired additions),
- Calculate over time„Time is money: Investors naturally prefer the timing of the flow of finance . „Cash“ rather sooner than later (preferably immediately). Just use the NPV method - obtained "clean" the present value of potential investments,
- Calculate the investment: risk. Way “ride out" variable "risk" is the use of variable "discount rate" in the calculations, there is most consistent with the investment risk . Recommended "inverse relationship" - the higher the risk the earlier calculated return on investment,

**EXAMPLE OF USING PP METHOD FOR THE EXCHANGE OF FLUORESCENT TUBES FOR LED LIGHT SOURCES**

Return on investment , Simple Pay back Period (SPP). 1 piece LED tube lamp, cold white, 120cm, 15W. Input parameters for the calculation of PP:

NAME | PARAMETERS |
---|---|

The purchase price of energy saving LED tube |
47,00€ |

Power consumption saving |
15W |

LED tube [W] The rate of electricity [€/kWh] |
0.20€ |

Daytime running lights [hour] |
10hrs. |

Mode of operation [365-year round, 252-working days] |
252days |

Equivalent wattage fluorescent tube [W] A |
36W |

Annual reduction in electricity costs |
10,58W |

Payback Period (PP) [years] |
4 a 5month |

Evaluation of the cost over the life of technology LCC (Life-Cycle Cost). Calculation of efficiency LED light sources:

NÁZOV | ŽIAROVKA | - | LED SVIETIDLO | PARAMETER |
---|---|---|---|---|

Príkon |
94,00 | - | 44,00 | W |

Počet |
4,00 | - | 4,00 | kusov |

Prevádzka |
8,00 | - | 8,00 | hodín deň |

Spotreba rok |
1097,92 | - | 513,92 | kWh |

Spotreba rok |
274,80 | - | 128,48 | eur |

Ročná úspora |
- | 584,00 | - | kWh |

Ročná úspora |
- | 146,00 | - | eur |

Návratnosť investície |
- | 5,48 | - | rokov |

Životnosť hodín |
- | 11,99 | - | rokov |

Úspora po dobu životnosti |
- | 7002,16 | - | kWh |

Úspora po dobu životnosti |
- | 1750,54 | - | eur |

Čistý zisk po dobu životnosti |
- | 950,54 | - | eur |

Ročný výnos z investície |
- | 9,91% | - | % |

Cena diela |
- | 800,00 | - | eur |

Rozdiel nákup ceny bez DPH |
- | 200,00 | - | eur |

Počet dní |
- | 365,00 | - | v roku |

Sadzba |
- | 0,25 | - | eur |

Životnosť |
- | 35000,00 | - | hodín |

Zaokrúhľovanie |
- | 2 | - | miesta |

Premena jednotiek |
- | kWh -> 1000 | - | kWh |

**LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY**

- Incandescent (Thomas Edison, 1879), tungsten filament in a vacuum or gas halogen (bromine, iodine). The efficacy 10-18 lm / W , CRI 90%-100%,
- Discharge (fluorescent lamps, discharge lamps), electromagnetic discharge in mercury vapor, in the frequency domain UVB radiation (initial issue), subsequently converted optical properties of phosphors to "visible" spectrum (400nm - 700nm). Efficacy 35-200 lm/W, CRI 20%-95%,
- LED (Light Emitting Diode), photon emission from semiconductor transition (two semiconductor N and P),

- Initial electromagnetic emission in the blue spectrum converted in luminophore (barite mixtures or phosphorus) on the white spectrum (the entire visible spectrum, filtered IR and UV),
- Mixing 2 (dichromatic-BY), 3 (RGB trichromatic-, 630nm, 525nm, 470nm) or 4 (Tetrachromatic-RGBCyan) for white light, lower CRI,
- Efficacy 65-130 lm/W, CRI 70-95%. (Per capita CO2 emissions in Slovakia: 2003-0,2kg/kWh 2009-0,17kg/kWh),
- Standard EN 12464-1 (interior), -2 (exterior). Table No.: 3.5 conference rooms - 500lx - RA80 - Lighting should be controllable,
- Basic light physical quantities

- Light - electromagnetic radiation, which is due to its wavelength visible to the eye,
- Luminous intensity I - unit: candela [cd] -expressed about the ability of a point source of light in a particular direction induce visual perception,
- Illumination E - unit: lux [lx] -1 lux –is lighting caused by 1 lumen luminous flux incident on a surface 1 m². E=Φ/S (S is surface),
- Luminous flux Φ, unit: lumen [lm] -1 lumen the luminous flux emitted into one steradian solid angle point source intensity in all directions 1 candela,
- Brightness L - unit: candela per square meter [cd/m2] – Share a uniform surface illumination light source and size of the surfaces,

**THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM OF LIGHT SOURCES - THE RELEVANT "LIGHTING" STANDARDS**

- EN 12464-1 Light and lighting – Lighting Workspace - Part 1: Indoor work areas,
- Table 5.3 Offices, ref 3.5 conference and meeting facilities 500lx, UGRL 19, Ra 80 „lighting should be regulated“,
- EN 12464-2 Light and lighting – Lighting Workspace - Part 1: Outdoor work areas,

**BASIC ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES, MEASURED, ANALYZED AND EVALUATED BY EQUIPMENT MAU3**

**Voltage URMS, unit [V]:**Method of measuring RMS (Root Mean Square), (mean square value is applicable only in the harmonic waveform),**Current IRMS , unit [A]:**(mean square value is applicable only in the harmonic waveform),**Frequency [Hz]:**of the mains, MF (Mains Frequency),**The instantaneous power:**Active [W] Reactive [VAr]Apparent[VA],- A
**verage hourly active power (AHAP) [W]:**The share of active energy for operating hours, **Power Factor (PF) [without unit]:**the ratio of active to apparent power, range from 0.0 to 1.0 . (Power factor cosΦ, the phase shift between voltage and current, can be applied only in the harmonic waveform),**Distortion Factor (DF):**can by replaced PF by a very distortion the current,**Crest factor (CF):**the ratio of peak values to the average value,**Consuption[kWh]:**time integration of active power, (electrical work),**Energydistortion[%]:**contrast of the wide-spectrum active energy (time integration of active power) and its fundamental component (50 or 60 Hz), expressed in a percentage,

**PRINCIPLE OF EVALUATION ELECTRICITY SAVING BY DEVICE MAU3**

- When an existing technology is "approximated" value AHAP, simultaneously recorded operating hours,
- After installing the new more efficient technologies, the AHAP is zeroing and previous will be remembered as a value AHAP-old,
- Create a new AHAP we get a percentage of the savings share AHAP and AHAP-old,
- The percentage of savings derive a linear statistical concepts. Example of installing the measuring devices in the warehouse with connected load for lighting about 26 kW. 7 (3-phase) pieces of MAU3 + SD data-logger,
- AHAP: Example of installing the measuring devices in the warehouse with connected load for lighting about 26 kW.7 (3-phase) pieces of MAU3 + SD data-logger,