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PALCO IT, s.r.o. | Industrial technologies | Posts | Operating profit
Measurement of power consumption. Analysis of mains parameters. Evaluation of economic and statistical indicators.

Questions preceding the decision to invest: Increase technology machine production capacity over currently. Technology reduces operating costs and thus increase the efficiency. We will create some additional benefits. It is an investment in technology final.
PALCO IT, s.r.o. | Industrial technologies | Posts | Operating profit | Relative spectral emission, neutral white color temperature 4000K

Costs for investment:
  • Initial Cost: purchase, transportation, installation, commissioning,
  • Operation and Maintenance Cost: over the life of technology,
  • Fixed Cost: relatively constant for example levies, taxes, salaries,
  • Variable Cost: dependence on operating activities,
  • Incremental or Marginal Cost: determined from variable costs, eg. increase in performance of some of the technology,
  • Sunk Cost: usually ignored by them,
  • Adjustment Cost: on end of technical life,

PALCO IT, s.r.o. | Industrial technologies | Posts | Operating profit | Relative spectral emission, cool white color temperature 6000K

Economic variables related to the time:
  • The purchasing power of money finance: themselves typically declines over time. When investing associated with reward, in this case usually grows,
  • Price of technology: typically decreases by time,
  • Price of raw materials: grows by time,
  • The interest rate [%]: Interest - the amount of borrowed funds by banking institution for the use of funds . Depends not only on economic variables over time may rise or fall,
  • Strength of human thoughts: almost infinite value . Little used we act as thought patterns,

Methods for evaluating the profitability and return invesments predictive methods:
  • Payback Period PP: SPP - Single Payback Period, DPP - Discounted Payback Period. Counts with time value of money. Iterative calculation,
  • Return on Investment ROI: DPP - Discounted Payback Period. Involve with time value of money. Iteration method,
  • These two methods are not consistent there aren’t articulated, unsuited with cost over the technical life of technology, do not consider timing cash flow, do not include any costs associated with the specifics of accounting firms: DPP - Discounted Payback Period. Involve with time value of money. Iteration method,
  • Provide a rough approximation investment values. Rough predictive: DPP = year ago + Cost at beginning of year / Cash Flow during a year,
  • However, they are simple, quick, relatively denouncing to measure the profitability of future investments. Lower investment in capital, sufficient for the decision to invest. Weakest method is ROI, since time does not reflect cash flows, that we reduce economic efficiency of the project: ROI = Profit from investments - Investment costs / Invest costs

Other methods of evaluating the profitability of invesments:
  • The total lifetime costs of technology- total LCC - Life-Cycle Cost, present value method,
  • The ratio of savings to investment the method - benefit/cost ratio,
  • Net Present Value - NPV,
  • Internal Rate of Return - IRR,
  • These four methods ae more comprehensive, accurate, used for capital powerful investment,
  • Calculating the value of money present and future,
  • For MAU3 device, suitable methods are SPP for own investments and DPP in the case of credit,

The methods of evaluating the return on invesment SPP:
PALCO IT, s.r.o. | Industrial technologies | Posts | Operating profit | Relative spectral emission, warm white color temperature
Input parameters:
  • Initial Investment,
  • Annual cost 0 will not make,
  • The rate of electricity,
  • 2 and 3 parameter may be updated . An estimate of the number of years months, days to return investmen,

The methods of evaluating the return invesment DPP:
Initial investment 10000 € - -
The discount rate 5% - -
Annual gross income 3000€ - -
1.year 3000€/1,05 =2857€ Returns net
2.year 3000€/1,1025 =2721€ Returns net
3.year 3000€/1,1576 =2592€ Σ=10638€
4.year 3000€/1,2155 =2468€ Σ=8170€

Return on investment in 3 years and 9 months ward parameters:
  • Initial Investment,
  • The rate of electricity,
  • Discount rate in % 2 and 3 parameter may be updated. An estimate of the number of years months, days to return investment,

Brief guide to better invesment. Before you decide to invest in the development. Making GO/NO-GO project decision:
  • Focus on „cash flows: less on profits. Better a sparrow in the hand than a pigeon on the roof proverb. Accounting profits contain a number of economic fictions assumptions, on the other hand, the flow of funds is economic fact manifested reality,
  • Focus on growth „cash flows: carefully imagine alternatives to the project affect change cash flows thus, the desired additions,
  • Calculate over time„Time is money: investors naturally prefer the timing of the flow of finance. Cash rather sooner than later preferably immediately. Just use the NPV method - obtained clean the present value of potential investments,
  • Calculate the investment: risk. way ride out variable risk is the use of variable discount rate in the calculations, there is most consistent with the investment risk . Recommended inverse relationship - the higher the risk the earlier calculated return on investment,

Example of using of PP method for the exchange of fluorescent tubes for LED light sources:
PALCO IT, s.r.o. | Industrial technologies | Posts | Operating profit | Binning - selection of LEDs according to chromaticity coordinates

Return on investment, SPP - Simple Pay back Period. 1 piece LED tube lamp, cold white: 120cm. Input parameters for the calculation of PP:
The purchase price of energy saving LED tube 47,00€
Power consumption saving 15W
LED tube [W] The rate of electricity [€/kWh] 0.20€
Daytime running lights [hour] 10hrs.
Mode of operation [365-year round, 252-working days] 252days
Equivalent wattage fluorescent tube [W] A 36W
Annual reduction in electricity costs 10,58W
Payback Period (PP) [years] 4 to 5month

Evaluation of the cost over the life of technology LCC - Life-Cycle Cost. Calculation of efficiency LED light sources:
Príkon 94,00 - 44,00 W
Počet 4,00 - 4,00 kusov
Prevádzka 8,00 - 8,00 hodín deň
Spotreba rok 1097,92 - 513,92 kWh
Spotreba rok 274,80 - 128,48 eur
Ročná úspora - 584,00 - kWh
Ročná úspora - 146,00 - eur
Návratnosť investície - 5,48 - rokov
Životnosť hodín - 11,99 - rokov
Úspora po dobu životnosti - 7002,16 - kWh
Úspora po dobu životnosti - 1750,54 - eur
Čistý zisk po dobu životnosti - 950,54 - eur
Ročný výnos z investície - 9,91% - %
Cena diela - 800,00 - eur
Rozdiel nákup ceny bez DPH - 200,00 - eur
Počet dní - 365,00 - v roku
Sadzba - 0,25 - eur
Životnosť - 35000,00 - hodín
Zaokrúhľovanie - 2 - miesta
Premena jednotiek - kWh -> 1000 - kWh

Lighting technology:
  • Incandescent: Thomas Edison 1879, tungsten filament in a vacuum or gas halogen bromine, iodine. The efficacy 10lm/W to 18lm/W , CRI 90%-100%,
  • Discharge: fluorescent lamps, discharge lamps, electromagnetic discharge in mercury vapor, in the frequency domain UVB radiation initial issue, subsequently converted optical properties of phosphors to visible spectrum 400nm to 700nm. Efficacy 35lm/W to 200lm/W, CRI 20%-95%,
  • LED: Light Emitting Diode, photon emission from semiconductor transition two semiconductor N and P,
  • Initial electromagnetic emission in the blue spectrum converted in luminophore barite mixtures or phosphorus on the white spectrum the entire visible spectrum, filtered IR and UV,
  • Mixing: 2: dichromatic-BY, 3: RGB trichromatic 630nm, 525nm, 470nm, 4: Tetrachromatic-RGB Cyan for white light, lower CRI,
  • Efficacy: 65lm/W to 130lm/W, CRI 70%-95%. Per capita CO2 emissions in Slovakia: 2003-0,2kg/kWh, 2009-0,17kg/kWh,
  • Standard: EN 12464-1 interior, exterior. Table No.: 3.5 conference rooms 500lx, RA80 Lighting should be controllable,
  • Basic light physical quantities:
  • Light - electromagnetic radiation: which is due to its wavelength visible to the eye,
  • Luminous intensity I - unit: candela [cd] expressed about the ability of a point source of light in a particular direction induce visual perception,
  • Illumination E unit: lux [lx]. 1 lux is lighting caused by 1 lumen luminous flux incident on a surface 1 m². E=Φ/S (S is surface),
  • Luminous flux Φ unit: lumen [lm]. 1 lumen the luminous flux emitted into one steradian solid angle point source intensity in all directions 1 candela,
  • Brightness L unit: candela per square meter [cd/m2]. Share a uniform surface illumination light source and size of the surfaces,

The visible spectrum of light sources the relevant lighting standards:
  • EN 12464-1: light and lighting, lighting workspace, part 1 - indoor work areas,
  • EN 12464-2: light and lighting, lighting workspace, part 1 - outdoor work areas,
  • Conference and meeting facilities: 500lx, UGRL19, Ra80, lighting should be regulated,

Basic electrical quantities, measured analyzed and evaluated by equipment MAU3:
  • Voltage URMS [V]: Method of measuring RMS - Root Mean Square, mean square value is applicable only in the harmonic waveform,
  • Current IRMS [A]: mean square value is applicable only in the harmonic waveform,
  • Frequency [Hz]: of the mains, Mains Frequency,
  • The instantaneous power: Active [W], Reactive [VAr], Apparent[VA],
  • AHAP - Average hourly active power [W]: The share of active energy for operating hours,
  • PF - Power Factor [without unit]: the ratio of active to apparent power, range from 0.0 to 1.0 . Power factor cosΦ, the phase shift between voltage and current, can be applied only in the harmonic waveform,
  • DF - Distortion Factor: can by replaced PF by a very distortion the current,
  • CF - Crest factor: the ratio of peak values to the average value,
  • Consuption [kWh]: time integration of active power, electrical work,
  • Energydistortion [%]: contrast of the wide-spectrum active energy time integration of active power and its fundamental component 50Hz or 60Hz, expressed in a percentage,

Principle of evaluation electricity saving by device MAU3:
  • When an existing technology is approximated value AHAP, simultaneously recorded operating hours,
  • After installing the new more efficient technologies, the AHAP is zeroing and previous will be remembered as a value AHAP-old,
  • Create a new AHAP we get a percentage of the savings share AHAP and AHAP-old,
  • The percentage of savings derive a linear statistical concepts. Example of installing the measuring devices in the warehouse with connected load for lighting about 26kW. 73-phase pieces of MAU3 + SD data-logger,
  • AHAP: Example of installing the measuring devices in the warehouse with connected load for lighting about 26kW.73-phase pieces of MAU3 + SD data-logger,